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Mesopotamian Civilization

Mesopotamia is the plain between Euphrates and Tigris. It covers the area of modern Iraq, west Iran and Syria, where the foremost civilization emerged. We can find in it the origins of almost all important aspects of human life, such as agriculture, animal husbandry, handicrafts, trade, writing (cuneiform), literature, technique, schools, religion, etc.

Sumer is the known earliest culture in Mesopotamia. Around BC 4500, irrigated farming appeared in south Mesopotamia. Cities were established consequently. The invention of writing took place at about BC3200, which made the coming forth of Sumer kingdoms possible. In the 2000 years after that, Babylonia and Assyrian replaced Sumerian, dominated the lands between the two big rivers, and exaggerated the influence of their culture in Near East through military, economic or cultural ways. From BC900 to BC600, Ancient Mesopotamian Civilization greeted its most flourished period. After that, Persian and subsequent Alexander the Great brought an end to this brilliant civilization.

We can never ignore the political, cultural and economic communication or interaction between Mesopotamian Civilization and its surrounding great civilizations, such as Egypt, Hittite (in Anatolia) and Middle East. Also what should be born in mind is its profound influence to Hebrews, Persians, Hellenes, Romans, Christians, Muslims and any later civilizations.

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Items on Display
¡¤ 1. Female Figurine
¡¤ 2. Painted Pottery Bow
¡¤ 3. Painted Pottery Jar
¡¤ 4. Beveled Rim Bowl
¡¤ 5. Figurine of Standing Bull
¡¤ 6. Greenish£­black Stone Tablet with Property Transaction
¡¤ 7. Cylinder Seal in ¡°Brocade¡± Style
¡¤ 8. Markhor£­goat Protome
¡¤ 9. Statuette of a Standing Male
¡¤ 10. Statue of a Standing Male
¡¤ 11. Relief£­carved Stone Plaque with Cart Pulled by Equids
¡¤ 12. Cylinder Seal with Contest Scene
¡¤ 13. Relief£­carved Plaque with Lion£­headed Bird of Prey and Human£­faced Bison
¡¤ 14. Artificial Flowers
¡¤ 15. Frieze with Inlays of Bulls
¡¤ 16. Frieze with Inlays of Birds
¡¤ 17. Column with Mosaic Decoration
¡¤ 18. Gold Finger Ring
¡¤ 19. Gold Finger Ring
¡¤ 20. ¡°Dog Collar¡± or Choker
¡¤ 21. Gold Flower Hair Ornament
¡¤ 22. Necklace
¡¤ 23. Gold Flower Hair Ornament
¡¤ 24. Wreath Headdress
¡¤ 25. Beaded Cuff
¡¤ 26. Hair Ribbon
¡¤ 27. Beads
¡¤ 28. Garment Pin
¡¤ 29. Gold Earrings
¡¤ 30. Gold Hairrings
¡¤ 31. Cylinder Seal
¡¤ 32. Relief£­carved Disk with Inscription of Enheduanna£¬ Daughter of Sargon£¬ Founder of the Dynasty of Agade
¡¤ 33. Clay Tablet with Administrative Record
¡¤ 34. Head of Statue of Gudea£¬ Ruler of the City£­state of Lagash
¡¤ 35. Head of Statuette of a High£­ranking Woman
¡¤ 36. Inscribed Statuette and Tablet Recording Rim£­Sin¡¯s Construction of Enki¡¯s Temple at Ur
¡¤ 37. Animal Protome Staff Head
¡¤ 38. Mold£­made Plaque Featuring Goddess with Flowing Vase
¡¤ 39. Cuneiform Tablet with Legal Text
¡¤ 40. Cuneiform Tablet with Literary Composition
¡¤ 41. Round Clay Tablet with Excerpt from Lexical List
¡¤ 42. Painted Pottery Goblet
¡¤ 43. Painted Pottery Goblet
¡¤ 44. Boundary stone £¨kudurru£©
¡¤ 45. Clay Tablet with Map of Watercourses
¡¤ 46. Kassite Cylinder Seal
¡¤ 47. Relief£­carved Orthostat from the Palace of the Assyrian King Assurnasirpal II at Nimrud
¡¤ 48. Foundation Cylinder of Nabopolassar£¬ Founder of the Neo£­Babylonian Dynasty £¨626£­539 BCE£©
¡¤ 49. Incense Burner
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