Mesopotamia is the plain between Euphrates and Tigris. It covers the area of modern Iraq, west Iran and Syria, where the foremost civilization emerged. We can find in it the origins of almost all important aspects of human life, such as agriculture, animal husbandry, handicrafts, trade, writing (cuneiform), literature, technique, schools, religion, etc.
Sumer is the known earliest culture in Mesopotamia. Around BC 4500, irrigated farming appeared in south Mesopotamia. Cities were established consequently. The invention of writing took place at about BC3200, which made the coming forth of Sumer kingdoms possible. In the 2000 years after that, Babylonia and Assyrian replaced Sumerian, dominated the lands between the two big rivers, and exaggerated the influence of their culture in Near East through military, economic or cultural ways. From BC900 to BC600, Ancient Mesopotamian Civilization greeted its most flourished period. After that, Persian and subsequent Alexander the Great brought an end to this brilliant civilization.
We can never ignore the political, cultural and economic communication or interaction between Mesopotamian Civilization and its surrounding great civilizations, such as Egypt, Hittite (in Anatolia) and Middle East. Also what should be born in mind is its profound influence to Hebrews, Persians, Hellenes, Romans, Christians, Muslims and any later civilizations.